Psychological anthropology of tourism: mass tourism in the light of alternative anthropological practices
The purpose of this scientific article is to consider the methodological potential of psychology as the most important component of the anthropological corpus of knowledge about a Human: using effective methods of cognition, psychological anthropology allows us to reveal authentically the "requests-needs-desires" of a modern person as a collective subject of action. The result of the study was the analysis of mass tourism practices as a mirror of the psychology of a “mass Human” (H. Ortega-Gasset) as an opposition to alternative forms of tourist behavior using, in particular, the methods of humanistic psychology of A. Maslow, which focuses on the nonlinear nature of human needs relationships, the theory of personality by K. Horney, the concept of logotherapy by W. Frankl and the theory of a person self-determination by E. Disi and R. Rain. The study is of an applied nature: its results can be used by professionals in the tourism industry, which, since the end of the twentieth century, has been viewed exclusively as the anthropological practice of the Other.
The role of the object of love in the formation of a loving person in the psychological anthropology of E. Erickson
The aim of the study is to reveal the nature and essence of love feelings in the existential-anthropological plots of the psychological theory of E. Erickson by analyzing the role of the object of love in the subjectivity of the loving person inner-self. Since the theme of love was not specially singled out by Eric Erickson, this determined the need for this study, which produced the following results: 1) the essence of love as an existential feeling was revealed, defined by E. Erickson through destination, which makes it possible to achieve ontological integrity both at the level of individual being (being as a loving person with a special personality structure) and universal being (giving both anthropologically more refined and ontologically more solid foundations of existence in the world), where both levels are interconnected through the existence of lovers being; 2) the nature of love is reconstructed, reflected in E. Erickson's ego-psychology in three virtues that determine each other (trust – loyalty – care) as the main vital forces of the evolutionary development of a person; 3) the mechanism of the subject-object interaction of the “participants” of love is shown, through which the nature of love is actualized and its essence is fully realized.
Marital and family relationships have various foundations; relationships based on love are their ideal, desirable kind. The requests of the modern individual regarding family and marriage are determined not only by a desire for emotional intimacy, but also (due to the erotic revolution of the twentieth century) a new - included in the love content - need for the erotic component of a romantic love feeling. Thus, a married couple faces new challenges that test reciprocity and the depth of a love feeling uniting them, in particular, a poorly studied character of unfaithfulness; love experience may include an event of unfaithfulness resulting from a lack of the evolutionary logic of love understanding, psychological "hygiene" of family relationships. The article is devoted to the examination of the feeling of love in marriage and family relations at the present stage of their existence, as well as some reasons leading to the disharmony of interpersonal relationships in marriage.
The psychology of love has a long history of formation and development. However, the main goal of revealing the nature and essence of love feelings has not been achieved yet. The explosive nature of the twentieth century made it possible to come closer to the realization of this goal, since human sensuality was rehabilitated during this period, opening up new opportunities for the realization of the "private" being of the individual. The research subject here is the existential analytics of love by the Catholic theologian Dietrich von Hildebrandt, which is of great importance in the theoretical studies of love in the twentieth century. In the program work on love (“Metaphysics of Love”), the author made an attempt (successful) to identify the psychological essence of romantic love, which is the initial stage of love feeling regardless of the cultural-historical context, and containing the potential for self-development of love feelings.
The twentieth century is considered to be the “century of crowds” (S. Moscovici). The whole series of studies is devoted to studying the phenomenon of the crowd, in which the crowd (mass) is presented in general as a “social animal” that needs taming. Today, the research of mass spontaneous behavior continues – with the only difference that a “negative” anthropology, based solely on distrust of the phenomenon, has been replaced by a “positive” one: the crowd, being an ambivalent phenomenon, being at the intersection of the individual and the collective, conscious and unconscious, can show different sides – to be both as "stupid" (mostly destructive), and "clever" (G. Reingold). A radical change in the view of the crowd as a social phenomenon, its revaluation was promoted by the relatively recent theoretical shift in its consideration: from the crowd as an object to the crowd as a subject of social action. In this connection, it became possible to identify the essential signs of “clever crowd” (ability for self-organization and rationality). The article details the content of negative and positive views on the crowd, their advantages and disadvantages; technology of working with the crowd, including those that allow you to turn it into a “clever” one, thereby opening up new horizons for the development and renewal of the democratic form of society.